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What are the causes of Periodontal Disease and Treatments

Periodontal Disease

Periodontitis is a group of conditions. All of them involve inflammation of the gums and other structures that support the teeth. This disease often starts as gingivitis.

Periodontal Disease
Periodontal Disease

Periodontitis is caused by bacteria that attach to the teeth at the gum line and result in an infection. Your body tries to fight the infection. Some of the substances that your body produces can be harmful. They damage the jaw bone and the ligament around the teeth.

Symptoms of Periodontal Disease

  • Reddened, swollen or bleeding gums

  • Receding gums

  • Loose Teeth

  • Bad breat

What causes Periodontal disease

Our mouths are full of bacteria. These bacteria, along with mucus and other particles, constantly form a sticky, colorless “plaque” on teeth. Brushing and flossing help get rid of plaque. Plaque that is not removed can harden and form “tartar” that brushing doesn’t clean. Only a professional cleaning by a dentist or dental hygienist can remove tartar.

Types of Periodontal Disease

  • Chronic periodontitis. This most common type of gum disease is characterized by progressive loss of the bone and soft tissues that surround and support your teeth. The damage usually develops more slowly than it does in aggressive periodontitis.

  • Periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic disease. This usually develops at a young age and occurs in conjunction with another health problem, such as diabetes.

  • Necrotizing periodontal disease. A severe form of periodontitis, this causes the death of gum tissue, tooth ligaments and even bone. People suffering from malnutrition or living with HIV/AIDS are especially vulnerable.

Risk Factors of Periodontal Disease

  1. Smoking. Smoking is one of the most significant risk factors associated with the development of periodontitis. Additionally, smoking can lower the chances of success of some treatments.

  2. Hormonal changes in girls/women. These changes can make gums more sensitive and make it easier for gingivitis to develop.

  3. Diabetes. People with diabetes are at higher risk for developing infections, including periodontal disease.

  4. Stress. Research shows that stress can make it more difficult for our bodies to fight infection, including periodontal disease.

  5. Medications. Some drugs, such as antidepressants and some heart medicines, can affect oral health because they lessen the flow of saliva. (Saliva has a protective effect on teeth and gums.)

  6. Illnesses. Diseases like cancer or AIDS and their treatments can also affect the health of gums.

  7. Genetic susceptibility. Some people are more prone to severe periodontal disease than others.

What Are the Treatments Periodontal Disease

The main goal of treatment is to control the infection. The number and types of treatment will vary, depending on the extent of the gum disease. Any type of treatment requires that the patient keep up good daily care at home. Additionally, modifying certain behaviors, such as quitting tobacco use, might also be suggested as a way to improve treatment outcome.

  • Deep Cleaning (Scaling and Root Planing)

    The dentist, periodontist or dental hygienist removes the plaque through a deep-cleaning method called scaling and root planing. Scaling means scraping off the tartar from above and below the gum line. Root planing gets rid of rough spots on the tooth root where the germs gather, and helps remove bacteria that contribute to the disease.

  • Medications

    Medications may be used with treatment that includes scaling and root planing, but they cannot always take the place of surgery. Depending on the severity of gum disease, the dentist or periodontist may still suggest surgical treatment. Long-term studies will be needed to determine whether using medications reduces the need for surgery and whether they are effective over a long period of time.

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