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Alcohol Intoxication: Symptoms, Treatments

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Alcohol intoxication is very serious. It occurs when you drink alcohol faster than your liver can break it down. Symptoms at lower doses may include mild sedation and poor coordination. At higher doses, there may be slurred speech, trouble walking and vomiting. A standard serving of alcohol in the United States is 0.6 fluid ounces (fl oz) or 14 grams (g) of pure alcohol. This translates to the following single servings of standard alcoholic drinks.

1. 12 fl oz of beer with a 5% alcohol content
2. 5 fl oz of wine with a 12% alcohol content.
3.  1.5 fl oz of a distilled spirit with a 40% alcohol content.
Alcohol is a generic term for ethanol, which is a particular type of alcohol produced by the fermentation of many foodstuffs-most commonly barley, hops, and grapes. Other types of alcohol commonly available such as methanol (common in glass cleaners), isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol), and ethylene glycol (automobile antifreeze solution) are highly poisonous when swallowed, even in small quantities. Severe intoxication is a medical emergency. It is also called alcohol overdose or alcohol poisoning. It can lead to death. Here are some key factors.
⦁ It can take 10 minutes or more to start to feel the effects of a drink. So it’s easy to drink more than you planned. Binge drinking is having 5 or more drinks over a short time. This can lead to an alcohol overdose.
⦁ One drink may be more than 1 serving of alcohol. In some cases, a drink can be 2 to 4 servings. This depends on the type of drink.
⦁ It takes about 1 hour for your body to break down 1 serving of alcohol. If you have more than 1 drink, it can take a few hours or more.
⦁ People with alcohol abuse disorders are more likely to get alcohol poisoning. But it can happen to anyone who drinks too much alcohol. Even a first-time drinker is at risk.
⦁ Many things affect how drinks will affect you.

Symptoms of alcohol intoxication

Mild intoxication
⦁ Feel more relaxed, less tense
⦁ Slurred speech
⦁ sleepy
⦁ Poor motor skills

Moderate intoxication
⦁ Changing behavior, aggression, depression
⦁ Poor judgment
⦁ Confusion
⦁ trouble focusing
⦁ Poor balance and coordination

Severe intoxication
⦁ Vomiting
⦁ Seizures
⦁ Fainting
⦁ Cold, clammy skin
⦁ Slow or irregular breathing
⦁ Low body temperature (hypothermia)
⦁ Coma
The department of Health and Human Services classifies alcohol as a carcinogen, a substance that plays a role in causing cancer. The medical community has linked alcohol with numerous types of cancer, such as cancers of the mouth, larynx, and esophagus.

Treatment

Treatment for alcohol intoxication involves supportive care while the body tries to process the alcohol. You must seek emergency medical treatment for a person who’s showing symptoms of alcohol poisoning.
At home, while you wait for professional care, you should:
⦁ If they’re unconscious, gently turn the person on their side to prevent them from choking on vomit.
⦁ If they’re conscious, encourage the person to lay on their side in a safe place until help arrives.
⦁ If they’re able to swallow, encourage the person to drink water.
⦁ Stay with the person until medical help arrives.
It’s a myth that a person can recover from alcohol intoxication by sleeping, taking a cold shower, going for a walk, or drinking black coffee or caffeine. In fact, doing these things can put an intoxicated person at greater risk of injury and death.
Emergency medical technicians will take the intoxicated person to the hospital. There, professionals will:
⦁ Carefully monitor vital signs.
⦁ Prevent breathing or choking problems with a breathing tube that opens the airways
⦁ Give oxygen therapy
⦁ Give intravenous (IV) fluids to prevent dehydration
⦁ Give vitamins and glucose (sugar) to prevent complications.

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Health

World Human Spirit Day Thoughts

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World Human Spirit Day Thought

February 17 is observed as the World Human Spirit Day to encourage mindfulness through meditation. World Human Spirit Day was started in 2003 by Michael Levy to serve as the day to promote a human spirit that lives a creative, peaceful, and loving life.

Here are a few quotes for the World Human Spirit Day

The human spirit was the strongest medicine on earth. And sometimes all it needed was a little encouragement to pull off a miracle.

The human body has limitations; the human spirit is boundless. – Dean Karnazes

Man never made any material as resilient as human spirit. – Bernard Williams

The human spirit is stronger than anything that can happen to it. – C C Scott

Difficulties are meant to rouse not discourage. The human spirit is to grow strong by conflict. – William Ellery Channing

Freedom is one of the deepest and noblest aspirations of the human spirit. – Ronald Reagan

You have to, in some ways, trust in the human spirit and in human ingenuity. – Ariel Garten

Don’t ever forget that you’re a citizen of this world, and there are things you can do to lift the human spirit, things are easy, things are free, things that you can do every day. Civility, respect, kindness, character. – Aaron sorkin

Ways to develop Human Spirit

  1. Meditation
  2. Talk to yourself
  3. Prayer
  4. Fill with positive words

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Vitamin B3 Protects Skin Cells From The Effects Of UV Exposure, New Research Finds

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We all know just how important eating our vitamins are. Vitamins are essential nutrients that nourish our body and keep vital organs functioning smoothly. While some help with immunity, others regulate the skin and hair.

And turns out a few of them can even keep you safe from cancer. In fact, a recent study found that increasing the consumption of vitamin B3 can protect the skin from the ill-effects of UV rays, potentially reducing the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancers.

Researchers in Italy isolated cells (human primary keratinocytes) from the skin of patients with non-melanoma skin cancers. These cells were treated with three different concentrations of nicotinamide (NAM), a form of vitamin B3, for 18, 24, and 48 hours and then exposed to UVB rays.

Vitamin B3 can work wonders when it comes to protecting the skin:

Results show that pre-treatment with 25mM of NAM 24 hours before UV irradiation protected the skin cells from the effects of UV-induced oxidative stress, including DNA damage. Furthermore, it decreased antioxidant expression and blocked local inflammation by showing decreased nitric oxide release and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and reduced iNOS protein expression.

Lara Camillo, a research student from the dermatological unit of AOU universitaria Maggiore della Carita, Novara, Italy says: “Our study indicates that increasing the consumption of vitamin B3, which is readily available in the daily diet, will protect the skin from some of the effects of UV exposure, potentially reducing the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancers. However, the protective effect of vitamin B3 is short-acting, so it should be consumed no later than 24 to 48 hours before sun exposure.”

Research presented today at EADV’s 29th Congress, EADV Virtual, shows hope that a form of vitamin B3 could protect skin cells from the effects of ultraviolet (UV) exposure: the main risk factor for non-melanoma skin cancers.

Researchers in Italy isolated cells (human primary keratinocytes) from the skin of patients with non-melanoma skin cancers. These cells were treated with three different concentrations of nicotinamide (NAM), a form of vitamin B3, for 18, 24, and 48 hours and then exposed to UVB.

Results show that pre-treatment with 25μM of NAM 24 hours before UV irradiation protected the skin cells from the effects of UV-induced oxidative stress, including DNA damage. NAM enhanced DNA repair, demonstrated by decreased expression of the DNA repair enzyme OGG1. Furthermore, it decreased antioxidant expression and blocked local inflammation by showing decreased nitric oxide (NO) release and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and reduced iNOS protein expression.

Lara Camillo, a research student from the Dermatological Unit of AOU Maggiore della Carità, Novara, Italy says: “Our study indicates that increasing the consumption of vitamin B3, which is readily available in the daily diet, will protect the skin from some of the effects of UV exposure, potentially reducing the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancers. However, the protective effect of vitamin B3 is short-acting, so it should be consumed no later than 24 to 48 hours before sun exposure.”

Non-melanoma skin cancers are the most common malignancies in the Caucasian population and incidence is increasing worldwide. The main risk factor is UV radiation exposure, which damages the DNA, increases ROS production, activates local inflammation, and depletes cellular energy, leading to genomic instability and cell death.

About skin cancer:

There are two main types of skin cancer: non-melanoma skin cancer (which includes basal cell skin cancer, squamous cell skin cancer and other rare types) and melanoma skin cancer. Basal and squamous cell cancers are most often found in areas exposed to the sun, such as the head, neck, and arms, but they also can occur elsewhere (2). They are very common but are usually very treatable (2). Melanoma is a type of skin cancer that develops when melanocytes (the cells that give the skin its tan or brown colour) start to grow out of control (3). Melanoma is much less common than some other types of skin cancers but is more dangerous because it’s much more likely to spread to other parts of the body if not caught and treated early (3). Non-melanoma skin cancer is the 5th most commonly occurring cancer in men and women, with over 1 million diagnoses worldwide in 2018.4 Melanoma of the skin is the 19th most commonly occurring cancer in men and women, with nearly 300,000 new cases in 2018.

About EADV:

Founded in 1987, EADV is the leading community to further the knowledge of health professionals and advocates in the field of dermatology and venereology. It is a non-profit organization with over 7,000 members, across 113 different countries in the world, providing a valuable service for every type of dermato-venereologists professional. The EADV is committed to improving the quality of patient care, continuing medical education for all dermato-venereologists within Europe and beyond, and advocacy on behalf of the specialty and patients.

About EADV Virtual:

This year’s Congress is a first in EADV’s history. EADV Virtual – New Frontiers in Dermatology and Venereology provides an exceptional opportunity for colleagues from around the world to explore the latest developments in science and patient care that are at the heart of the academy’s mission. The user experience is immersive and simple to follow.

 

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Passion fruit: what are the health and medicinal benefits of passion fruit? What do you know about passion fruit?

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Modern lifestyle diseases, such as obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS), may lead to many complications, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease. They also accelerate the aging processes. Appropriate dietary interventions may help to regulate glucose and energy metabolism, and thus improve the outcome for affected individuals.

Among the interventions are caloric restriction, which helps reduce insulin resistance by preventing sustained hyperglycemia. This often requires long-term control of dietary choice and portion size, which is difficult to maintain for a majority of overweight subjects. For this reason, functional foods, such as passion fruit are being studied for their potential contribution to reducing weight and insulin resistance.

Metabolic Benefits

One compound in passion fruit, which has garnered plenty of interest is piceatannol, an analog of resveratrol. The latter is a polyphenol, which has been shown to lower glucose levels, and to increase stamina, in several rodent studies.

A clinical study on resveratrol in humans with excessively high body mass index (BMI) confirmed these results, as well as its ability to produce a reduction in blood pressure and higher mitochondrial respiration in muscle tissue, as well as the activation of several muscle kinases. Piceatannol shares many of these benefits, improving metabolic parameters and glucose breakdown, reducing vascular tone, increasing eNOS levels (which is vaso-protective), promoting collagen synthesis, and reducing ultraviolet damage to the skin. In fact, its activity is higher than that of resveratrol.

One study showed that insulin levels in serum were significantly reduced in the fasting state in overweight men with piceatannol supplementation, as well as a fall in the blood pressure and the heart rate. This was not seen in women or in men with a normal BMI. Another study in mice showed inhibition of postprandial rises in blood glucose levels as well, which points to the potential for anti-diabetic activity with piceatannol supplements. Further studies are needed to understand the variation in effect with body composition and gender, as well as to perform more sensitive and long-term evaluations of the changes in glucose and insulin parameters.

Cardiovascular Benefits

The cardiovascular effects of piceatannol seem to be mediated by the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of the polyphenol. It is known that failure of vasorelaxation, which is mediated by eNOS activity, is a characteristic of endothelial dysfunction. This would lead eventually to atherosclerosis via lipid oxidation and inflammation of blood vessels. It also activates dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase, and thus inhibits the natural deactivation of eNOS. Again, it increases eNOS stability, thus prolonging its half-life. It has other mechanisms of vascular anti-inflammatory action as well. Piceatannol thus has profound cardioprotective effects, and a central mechanism of action cannot be ruled out as well. In addition, it may help to stabilize cardiac myocytes.

Each 100g serving of passion fruit supplies about 30g potassium, or a quarter of the daily requirement. This is one of the best things to do to reduce cardiovascular risk. Potassium is a vasodilator, and it is necessary for the operation of the vital ion channels in the cell membranes.

Antioxidant Benefits

Passion fruit also contains many other antioxidants, such as C-glycosyl flavonoids, chlorogenic acid, isovitexin, caffeic acid, quercetin, rutin, and luteolin. These also play a role in glycemic and lipid control, but the exact effects and doses have to be elucidated through further study. A single serving can contain about 30g of vitamin C, and significant amounts of carotene and cryptoxanthin, all of which are powerful antioxidant molecules lowering the risk of age-related degeneration, cancers, and cardiovascular disease. Vitamin C also stimulates collagen synthesis and improves epithelial health, as well as being an immunomodulator to boost innate immunity.

Dietary Fiber

Passion fruits also contain large amounts of dietary fiber (98% of the daily recommended intake), which helps improve intestinal health, reduces the pH and ammonia levels in the colon and thus encourages healthy intestinal microbiota, and relieves constipation and flatulence. Again, fiber reduces appetite and this again leads to lower insulin levels and reversal of the metabolic syndrome. It also results in lower levels of cholesterol in the blood. The rind of the fruit is also rich in soluble fiber, which has independent anti-diabetic and anti-dyslipidemic effects. Fiber also lowers the risk of colorectal cancer. Piceatannol also counteracts colonic irritation leading to intestinal inflammation.

Eye Health

The large amounts of vitamin A in passion fruit can safeguard eye health against age-related macular degeneration, prevent cataracts, and lower the rate of skin aging and wrinkling.

Anemia

Passion fruit also contains appreciable amounts of copper, iron, magnesium and phosphorus, contributing to bone health and to normal RBC counts, which helps to counter anemia.

Anxiolytic Benefits

Some rodent studies found a marked anxiolytic and sedative effect upon supplementing the diet with passion fruit, due to the alkaloid harman. This can also help to relieve insomnia.

Anti-Tumor Benefits

Anticancer effects include apoptotic actions upon human cancer cell lines, as well as inhibition of migration and epithelial anchoring of metastatic cells in breast and prostate cancer. Piceatannol also inhibits HDL uptake by neurons to which ecto-F1-ATPase autoantibodies are bound. It may thus may slow the development and progression of Alzheimer’s disease. It may also inhibit antigen-induced WBC degranulation and thus prevent allergic reactions.

Conclusion

Passion fruit is not just a delicious tropical addition to the menu, but a powerhouse of several potential health benefits and should become a part of a varied and rich diet whenever available in season.

 

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